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Mol Aspects Med. 2013 Dec;34(6):1109-23. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2013.01.005. Epub 2013 Jan 26.

PARP-1 and gene regulation: progress and puzzles.

Author information

1
Cecil H. and Ida Green Center for Reproductive Biology Sciences and the Division of Basic Reproductive Biology Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-8511, United States. Electronic address: lee.kraus@utsouthwestern.edu.

Abstract

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), also referred to as ADP-ribosyltransferase Diphtheria toxin-like 1 (ARTD1), is an abundant nuclear protein that plays key roles in a variety of nuclear processes, including the regulation of transcription. PARP-1 possesses an intrinsic enzymatic activity that catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose (ADPR) units from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) onto target gene regulatory proteins, thereby modulating their activities. Although great strides have been made in the past decade in deciphering the seemingly opposing and varied roles of PARP-1 in gene regulation, many puzzles remain. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding in this area, especially how PARP-1 interfaces with various components of gene regulatory pathways (e.g., the basal transcription machinery, DNA-binding transcription factors, coregulators, chromatin remodeling, histone modifications, and DNA methylation). In addition, we discuss some gene-specific, cell type-specific, and cell state-specific effects of PARP-1 on gene regulation, which might contribute to its biological functions. Finally, we review some of the recent progress targeting PARPs using chemical inhibitors, some of which may alter PARP-1-dependent gene regulatory programs to promote therapeutic outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

ADP-ribosylation; ARTD1; Activity; Chromatin; Gene expression; PARP-1; Poly(ADP-ribose); Posttranslational modification; Regulation; Transcription

PMID:
23357755
DOI:
10.1016/j.mam.2013.01.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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