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Int J Psychophysiol. 2014 Jul;93(1):112-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2012.11.007. Epub 2013 Jan 25.

Differential effects on mood of 12-15 (SMR) and 15-18 (beta1) Hz neurofeedback.

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Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, Lewisham Way, London SE14 6NW, UK. Electronic address:


The common assumption in EEG-neurofeedback is one of functional specificity of the trained spectral bands, though it has been posited that only a nonspecific generalised learning process may be engaged. Earlier we reported differential effects on attention in healthy participants measured with continuous performance tests and the P300, following training of the sensory-motor rhythm band (SMR, 12-15 Hz) compared with the adjacent beta1 (15-18 hz) band. Here previously unreported results are presented with phenomenological data from an activation checklist in support of the putative calming effect of SMR neurofeedback. While within sessions both protocols induced tiredness, this was paralleled by an increase in calmness only following SMR training. The differential effect on mood was theoretically consistent and extends evidence of cognitive functional specificity with neurofeedback to affective processes.


Beta1; EEG-neurofeedback; Mood; SMR; Specificity

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