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Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2014 Feb;40(2):260-5. doi: 10.3109/03639045.2012.756512. Epub 2013 Jan 29.

Deformable liposomes by reverse-phase evaporation method for an enhanced skin delivery of (+)-catechin.

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  • 1School of Pharmacy, the University of Auckland , Auckland , New Zealand .



(+)-catechin, as the most common catechin isomer, is recognized to be an antioxidant which benefits the skin in many ways. The purpose of the present study was to prepare and evaluate a suitable liposomal delivery systems for (+)-catechin topical application.


In this study, catechin-loaded conventional liposomal delivery system, deformable conventional liposomal delivery system and deformable liposomes prepared by reverse-phase evaporation (REV) method were compared. The three systems were characterized for liposome particle size, zeta-potential, entrapment efficiency, drug release, permeability across porcine skin and catechin deposition in the skin.


It was revealed that the size of deformable conventional liposomes before freeze-drying and deformable REV liposomes after freeze-drying range from 335.6 ± 71.7 nm to 551.1 ± 53.4 nm, respectively, which were considered to be suitable for skin delivery. The deformable REV liposomes had a higher aqueous volume and thus were able to entrap greater amounts of hydrophilic (+)-catechin (50.0 ± 5.9%) compared to conventional (30.0 ± 3.8%) and deformable conventional liposomes (36.1 ± 4.6%). All liposomal formulations exhibited a prolonged catechin release. Compared to deformable liposomes, the REV deformable liposomes showed a significantly better deposition of (+)-catechin while catechin solution did not permeate into the porcine ear skin.


Among all formulations studied, deformable REV liposomes were considered to be favorable for catechin topical delivery.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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