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Int Urol Nephrol. 2013 Oct;45(5):1327-37. doi: 10.1007/s11255-013-0378-2. Epub 2013 Jan 26.

Factors related to nephrotic-range proteinuria in late-stage chronic kidney disease patients with diabetes mellitus.

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Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yuan's General Hospital, No. 162, Chenggong 1st Rd., LingYa District, Kaohsiung, 802, Taiwan, ROC.



Diabetic nephropathy and proteinuria are important risk factors for both end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events. The present study aimed to identify the factors associated with nephrotic-range proteinuria in patients with advanced diabetic nephropathy.


This cross-sectional study enrolled 386 diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-5, from our outpatient Department of Nephrology. Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio was recorded. Additionally, other laboratory parameters, body mass index, blood pressure, comorbidities, and medications were also reviewed.


The mean age of the patients was 65.1 ± 11.6 years. Among patients with CKD stage 3 and 4, the odds ratio (OR) for nephrotic-range proteinuria in relation with systolic blood pressure significantly increased starting from 121 mmHg (OR 7.04 and 11.79 for systolic blood pressure of 121-140 and ≥141 mmHg, respectively, in comparison with systolic blood pressure below 121 mmHg). In addition, serum phosphorus ≥4.7 mg/dl was associated with significantly higher risk (OR 15.45) for severe proteinuria, compared with a phosphorus level ≤2.6 mg/dl. Finally, hypertriglyceridemia ≥241 mg/dl was also associated with higher OR for severe proteinuria, compared with a triglyceride level ≤200 mg/dl. Similar associations were found in patients with CKD stage 5.


Higher systolic blood pressure, serum phosphorus, and triglyceride levels are associated with nephrotic-range proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy and CKD stage 3-5. Further studies should clarify whether a reduction in serum phosphorus would lead to a decrease in proteinuria in these patients.

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