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J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2013 May;145(5):1199-206. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2012.12.070. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

One thousand minimally invasive mitral valve operations: early outcomes, late outcomes, and echocardiographic follow-up.

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Division of Cardiac Surgery, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.



The present study assessed the clinical and echocardiographic outcomes for 1000 patients undergoing minimally invasive mitral valve surgery.


The Brigham Cardiac Valve database was reviewed. From August 1996 to November 2011, 1000 patients had undergone minimally invasive mitral valve surgery (median follow-up, 7 years). Data on the surgical approach, complications, reoperations, and late survival were tabulated. Late echocardiographic data on the recurrence of mitral regurgitation after mitral repair in myxomatous disease were also collected. Survival, freedom from reoperation and recurrent mitral regurgitation (grade ≥ 3+) were evaluated with life tables and Kaplan-Meier analyses.


The mean patient age was 57 years. Of the 1000 patients, 41% were women. Myxomatous degenerative disease was the predominant pathologic entity (86%). A lower hemisternotomy was the predominant surgical approach (75%). Mitral repair was performed in 923 patients and replacement in 77. Eight operative deaths (0.8%) occurred. A total of 44 patients with failed mitral repairs underwent reoperation, with 1 mitral valve replaced again on the same operative day for atrioventricular groove disruption. Nine failed repairs were repaired again (9/44 [20%]). A total of 106 late deaths occurred. The overall survival at 15 years was 79% ± 3%. Freedom from reoperation at 15 years was 90% ± 3% for repairs and 100% for replacements. Late echocardiograms were acquired for 615 of 815 eligible mitral repair patients with myxomatous disease (75%). Freedom from recurrent mitral regurgitation (grade ≥ 3+) at 1, 5, and 10 years was 99% ± 1%, 87% ± 2%, and 69% ± 4%, respectively.


Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery is effective, with excellent late results. The durability of minimally invasive mitral valve repair compared favorably with conventional full sternotomy methods at late follow-up.

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