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Diabetes Care. 2013 Jul;36(7):1870-6. doi: 10.2337/dc12-2063. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Habitually higher dietary glycemic index during puberty is prospectively related to increased risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood.

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IEL-Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, DONALD Study at the Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Dortmund, Germany.



Carbohydrate nutrition during periods of physiological insulin resistance such as puberty may affect future risk of type 2 diabetes. This study examined whether the amount or the quality (dietary glycemic index [GI], glycemic load [GL], and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake) of carbohydrates during puberty is associated with risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood.


The analysis was based on 226 participants (121 girls and 105 boys) from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study (DONALD) with an average of five 3-day weighed dietary records (range 2-6) during puberty (girls, age 9-14 years; boys, age 10-15 years) and fasting blood samples in younger adulthood (age 18-36 years) (average duration of follow-up 12.6 years). Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the associations between carbohydrate nutrition and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as well as the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) (n = 214).


A higher dietary GI was prospectively related to greater values of HOMA-IR (P(trend) = 0.03), ALT (P(trend) = 0.02), and GGT (P(trend) = 0.04). After adjustment for sex, adult age, baseline BMI, and early life and socioeconomic factors as well as protein and fiber intake, predicted mean HOMA-IR values in energy-adjusted tertiles of GI were 2.37 (95% CI 2.16-2.60), 2.47 (2.26-2.71), and 2.59 (2.35-2.85). The amount of carbohydrates, GL, and added sugar, fiber, and whole-grain intake were not related to the analyzed markers.


Our data indicate that a habitually higher dietary GI during puberty may adversely affect risk markers of type 2 diabetes in younger adulthood.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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