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Diabetes. 2013 Jun;62(6):2088-94. doi: 10.2337/db12-0976. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Link between GIP and osteopontin in adipose tissue and insulin resistance.

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Department of Clinical Sciences, Diabetes, and Endocrinology, University Hospital Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.


Low-grade inflammation in obesity is associated with accumulation of the macrophage-derived cytokine osteopontin (OPN) in adipose tissue and induction of local as well as systemic insulin resistance. Since glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is a strong stimulator of adipogenesis and may play a role in the development of obesity, we explored whether GIP directly would stimulate OPN expression in adipose tissue and thereby induce insulin resistance. GIP stimulated OPN protein expression in a dose-dependent fashion in rat primary adipocytes. The level of OPN mRNA was higher in adipose tissue of obese individuals (0.13 ± 0.04 vs. 0.04 ± 0.01, P < 0.05) and correlated inversely with measures of insulin sensitivity (r = -0.24, P = 0.001). A common variant of the GIP receptor (GIPR) (rs10423928) gene was associated with a lower amount of the exon 9-containing isoform required for transmembrane activity. Carriers of the A allele with a reduced receptor function showed lower adipose tissue OPN mRNA levels and better insulin sensitivity. Together, these data suggest a role for GIP not only as an incretin hormone but also as a trigger of inflammation and insulin resistance in adipose tissue. Carriers of the GIPR rs10423928 A allele showed protective properties via reduced GIP effects. Identification of this unprecedented link between GIP and OPN in adipose tissue might open new avenues for therapeutic interventions.

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