Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Depress Anxiety. 2013 Mar;30(3):259-66. doi: 10.1002/da.22038. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Evidence for distinct genetic effects associated with response to 35% CO₂.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, Virginia Institute for Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA. rrobersonnay@vcu.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Carbon dioxide (CO2 ) hypersensitivity represents an individual difference response to breathing CO2 enriched air. People with a history of panic attacks or panic disorder are particularly prone to anxious response, suggesting that CO2 hypersensitivity is a robust risk marker of panic spectrum vulnerability.

METHODS:

Twin pairs (n = 346) from the general population-based Norwegian NIPH Mental Health Study completed a measure of anxiety before and after vital capacity inhalation of 35% CO2 air and before and after inhalation of regular air. Three hypotheses regarding genetic factors for CO2 hypersensitivity were examined: (1) a single set of genetic risk factors impacts anxiety before exposure to CO2 and these same genes constitute the only genetic influences on anxiety in response to CO2 , (2) the genetic effects on pre-CO2 anxiety are entirely different from the genetic effects on anxiety in response to exposure to CO2 (i.e., new genetic effects), and (3) pre-CO2 anxiety influences anxiety in response to CO2 as well as unique genetic factors that become activated by respiratory stimulation.

RESULTS:

Our results support the latter hypothesis for response to 35% CO2 , with additive genetic and unique environmental factors best fitting the data. Evidence of new genetic effects was observed, accounting for 20% unique variance in post 35% CO2 anxiety response. New genetic effects were not observed for anxiety ratings made post regular air where only preregular air anxiety ratings explained significant variance in this outcome.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data suggest that there are distinct genetic factors associated with responsivity to respiratory stimulation via 35% CO2 .

PMID:
23349098
PMCID:
PMC4096694
DOI:
10.1002/da.22038
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center