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Am J Kidney Dis. 2013 Jul;62(1):33-41. doi: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.11.044. Epub 2013 Jan 21.

Comparison of serum cystatin C, serum creatinine, measured GFR, and estimated GFR to assess the risk of kidney failure in American Indians with diabetic nephropathy.

Author information

1
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We compared values of baseline serum cystatin C (SCysC), serum creatinine (SCr), and measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) for predicting end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in patients with type 2 diabetes and elevated albuminuria.

STUDY DESIGN:

Observational longitudinal study.

SETTING & PARTICIPANTS:

Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes and elevated albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR ≥30 mg/g).

PREDICTORS:

Baseline SCysC, SCr, and mGFR.

OUTCOMES & MEASUREMENTS:

Individuals were followed up from their first examination with diabetes and ACR ≥30 mg/g until December 2010, onset of ESRD, or death, whichever came first. Incidence rates adjusted for age and sex were computed by Mantel-Haenszel stratification. The abilities of SCysC, SCr, and mGFR values to predict ESRD were compared with receiver operating characteristic curves.

RESULTS:

Of 234 Pima Indians with a mean age of 42.8 years who were followed up for a median of 10.7 (range, 0.6-21.3) years, 68 (29%) developed ESRD. The incidence of ESRD was significantly higher in patients in the lowest versus highest tertile of 1/SCysC (incidence rate ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.31-4.50). By contrast, mGFR and 1/SCr had J-shaped associations with ESRD. In unadjusted analyses, 1/SCysC had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC; 0.719 ± 0.035) and mGFR had the lowest (0.585 ± 0.042; P < 0.001); the AUROC for 1/SCr was intermediate (0.672 ± 0.040; P = 0.1 and P = 0.03 vs 1/SCysC and mGFR, respectively). In analyses adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, height, weight, hemoglobin A1c level, and ACR, 1/SCysC had the highest AUROC (0.845 ± 0.026). Models with mGFR or 1/SCr alone had similar AUROCs (P = 0.9) and both were lower than the model with 1/SCysC alone (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively).

LIMITATIONS:

The predictive values of the filtration markers are limited to the extent that their precision is based on a single measurement.

CONCLUSIONS:

SCysC level was a better predictor of ESRD than mGFR or SCr level in Pima Indians with type 2 diabetes and elevated albuminuria.

PMID:
23347458
PMCID:
PMC3664248
DOI:
10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.11.044
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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