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J Biol Phys. 2002 Jun;28(2):77-93. doi: 10.1023/A:1019993102869.

Chaperonin-affected folding of globular proteins.

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Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 Japan.


We studied the effect of GroEL on the kinetic refolding ofα-lactalbumin by stopped-flow fluorescence techniques. We usedwild-type GroEL and its ATPase-defficient mutant D398A, and studied thebinding constants between GroEL and the molten globule foldingintermediate at various concentrations of ADP and ATP. The results arecompared with titration of GroEL with the nucleotides, ADP, ATP-analogs(ATP-γS and AMP-PNP) and ATP, which have shown that bothADP and the ATP analogs are bound to GroEL in a non-cooperativemanner but that ATP shows a cooperative effect. Similarly, the bindingconstant between GroEL and the folding intermediate decreased in acooperative manner with an increase in ATP concentration although itshowed non-cooperative decrease with respect to ADP concentration. Itis shown that the allosteric control of GroEL by the nucleotides isresponsible for the above behavior of GroEL and that the observeddifference between the ATP- and ADP-induced transitions of GroEL isbrought about by a small difference in an allosteric parameter (the ratio ofthe nucleotide affinities of GroEL in the high-affinity and the low-affinitystates), i.e., 4.1 for ATP and 2.6 for ADP.


GroEL; chaperonin; molecular chaperone; protein folding

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