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J Neurosci. 2013 Jan 23;33(4):1326-30. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0271-12.2013.

Cortical adaptation to a chronic micro-electrocorticographic brain computer interface.

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Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130, USA.


Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology decodes neural signals in real time to control external devices. In this study, chronic epidural micro-electrocorticographic recordings were performed over primary motor (M1) and dorsal premotor (PMd) cortex of three macaque monkeys. The differential gamma-band amplitude (75-105 Hz) from two arbitrarily chosen 300 μm electrodes (one located over each cortical area) was used for closed-loop control of a one-dimensional BCI device. Each monkey rapidly learned over a period of days to successfully control the velocity of a computer cursor. While both cortical areas contributed to success on the BCI task, the control signals from M1 were consistently modulated more strongly than those from PMd. Additionally, we observe that gamma-band power during active BCI control is always above resting brain activity. This suggests that purposeful gamma-band modulation is an active process that is obtained through increased cortical activation.

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