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Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Apr 1;19(7):1894-901. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1894. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

DNA-Mutation Inventory to Refine and Enhance Cancer Treatment (DIRECT): a catalog of clinically relevant cancer mutations to enable genome-directed anticancer therapy.

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Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.



Tumor gene mutation status is becoming increasingly important in the treatment of patients with cancer. A comprehensive catalog of tumor gene-response outcomes from individual patients is needed, especially for actionable mutations and rare variants. We created a proof-of-principle database [DNA-mutation Inventory to Refine and Enhance Cancer Treatment (DIRECT)], starting with lung cancer-associated EGF receptor (EGFR) mutations, to provide a resource for clinicians to prioritize treatment decisions based on a patient's tumor mutations at the point of care.


A systematic search of literature published between June 2005 and May 2011 was conducted through PubMed to identify patient-level, mutation-drug response in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR mutant tumors. Minimum inclusion criteria included patient's EGFR mutation, corresponding treatment, and an associated radiographic outcome.


A total of 1,021 patients with 1,070 separate EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy responses from 116 different publications were included. About 188 unique EGFR mutations occurring in 207 different combinations were identified: 149 different mutation combinations were associated with disease control and 42 were associated with disease progression. Four secondary mutations, in 16 different combinations, were associated with acquired resistance.


As tumor sequencing becomes more common in oncology, this comprehensive electronic catalog can enable genome-directed anticancer therapy. DIRECT will eventually encompass all tumor mutations associated with clinical outcomes on targeted therapies. Users can make specific queries at to obtain clinically relevant data associated with various mutations.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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