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Prosthet Orthot Int. 2013 Oct;37(5):375-83. doi: 10.1177/0309364612471369. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

Orthotic variations in the management of infantile tibia vara and the results of treatment.

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Ankara University, Prosthetics and Orthotics Department, Ankara, Turkey.



Infantile tibia vara is an acquired form of tibial deformity associated with tibial varus and internal torsion. Several methods have been described for orthotics treatment. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of orthotics treatment in infantile tibia vara.


Controlled trial.


The aim of this study was to compare the effect of different types of orthoses and correction methods on decreasing the curve in children with severe genu varum.


Three different types of knee-ankle-foot orthoses were applied to 35 lower extremities of 22 pediatric participants who were 19-38 months of age. The same orthotic design principles were used to correct the femur, while different designs were applied to correct the tibia. The orthoses used on 20 participants were evaluated for differences among them and their effects on the treatment process. In addition, methods used in the treatment, problems encountered, production of different types of orthoses, convenience of application of the orthoses, and degree of patients satisfaction are discussed in this article.


The mean duration of treatment of the participants until completion of treatment was 25.3 ± 9.7 weeks with a minimum of 9 weeks and a maximum of 41 weeks. No statistically significant correlation was found between the duration of orthotic use in patients with a successful outcome and percentile height and percentile weight. When the duration of treatment using the different types of orthoses was analyzed, significant differences were found between Type 1 and Type 2, and Type 1 and Type 3 orthoses (p < 0.05), while no difference was observed between Type 2 and Type 3 orthoses (p > 0.05).


We found that bracing is an effective form of treatment for infantile tibia vara up to 38 months of age. We conclude that full-time use of knee-ankle-foot orthoses exerting corrective forces from five points along the full length of the limb was effective.


Blount’s disease; infantile tibia vara; knee-ankle-foot orthosis; orthotics treatment

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