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Simul Healthc. 2013 Feb;8(1):13-9. doi: 10.1097/SIH.0b013e318280b202.

Case and commentary: using simulation to address hierarchy issues during medical crises.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202, USA. aaron.calhoun@louisville.edu

Abstract

SUMMARY STATEMENT:

Medicine is hierarchical, and both positive and negative effects of this can be exposed and magnified during a crisis. Ideally, hierarchies function in an orderly manner, but when an inappropriate directive is given, the results can be disastrous unless team members are empowered to challenge the order. This article describes a case that uses misdirection and the possibility of simulated "death" to facilitate learning among experienced clinicians about the potentially deadly effects of an unchallenged, inappropriate order. The design of this case, however, raises additional questions regarding both ethics and psychological safety. The ethical concerns that surround the use of misdirection in simulation and the psychological ramifications of incorporating patient death in this context are explored in the commentary. We conclude with a discussion of debriefing strategies that can be used to promote psychological safety during potentially emotionally charged simulations and possible directions for future research.

PMID:
23343842
DOI:
10.1097/SIH.0b013e318280b202
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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