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J Psychopharmacol. 2013 Mar;27(3):256-64. doi: 10.1177/0269881112472564. Epub 2013 Jan 23.

Personality and the acute subjective effects of d-amphetamine in humans.

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Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.


There is evidence that subjective responses to psychoactive drugs are related to personality traits. Here, we extend previous findings by examining personality measures in relation to acute responses to d-amphetamine (AMPH) in a large sample of healthy volunteers. Healthy adults (n=286) completed the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire Brief Form (MPQ-BF) and participated in four sessions during which they received oral AMPH (0, 5, 10, 20 mg), under double-blind conditions. Subjective responses to the drug were measured using the Profile of Mood States, Addiction Research Center Inventory, and Drug Effects Questionnaire. Drug responses were reduced via principal components analysis to three higher-order factors ('Euphoria', 'Arousal', 'Dysphoria'). Participants were rank ordered on selected MPQ-BF scales; the top and bottom third on each trait were compared on the drug response factors. High trait physical fearlessness was significantly associated with greater amphetamine-related Arousal, and high trait reward sensitivity was significantly associated with greater Euphoria. In addition, high trait impulsivity was significantly associated with greater Arousal and Euphoria. These results provide further evidence that individual differences in the subjective effects of AMPH are partially explained by differences in personality, and are consistent with the idea that both personality and responses to stimulants depend upon shared neurochemical systems.

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