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J Sex Med. 2013 Jan;10(1):130-71. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12023.

SOP conservative (medical and mechanical) treatment of erectile dysfunction.

Author information

1
Private Urological/Andrological Practice, Hamburg, Germany. Porst20354@aol.com

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most frequently treated male sexual dysfunction worldwide. ED is a chronic condition that exerts a negative impact on male self-esteem and nearly all life domains including interpersonal, family, and business relationships.

AIM:

The aim of this study is to provide an updated overview on currently used and available conservative treatment options for ED with a special focus on their efficacy, tolerability, safety, merits, and limitations including the role of combination therapies for monotherapy failures.

METHODS:

The methods used were PubMed and MEDLINE searches using the following keywords: ED, phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors, oral drug therapy, intracavernosal injection therapy, transurethral therapy, topical therapy, and vacuum-erection therapy/constriction devices. Additionally, expert opinions by the authors of this article are included.

RESULTS:

Level 1 evidence exists that changes in sedentary lifestyle with weight loss and optimal treatment of concomitant diseases/risk factors (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia) can either improve ED or add to the efficacy of ED-specific therapies, e.g., PDE5 inhibitors. Level 1 evidence also exists that treatment of hypogonadism with total testosterone < 300 ng/dL (10.4 nmol/L) can either improve ED or add to the efficacy of PDE5 inhibitors. There is level 1 evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the following monotherapies in a spectrum-wide range of ED populations: PDE5 inhibitors, intracavernosal injection therapy with prostaglandin E1 (PGE1, synonymous alprostadil) or vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)/phentolamine, and transurethral PGE1 therapy. There is level 2 evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the following ED treatments: vacuum-erection therapy in a wide range of ED populations, oral L-arginine (3-5 g), topical PGE1 in special ED populations, intracavernosal injection therapy with papaverine/phentolamine (bimix), or papaverine/phentolamine/PGE1 (trimix) combination mixtures. There is level 3 evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of oral yohimbine in nonorganic ED. There is level 3 evidence that combination therapies of PDE5 inhibitors + either transurethral or intracavernosal injection therapy generate better efficacy rates than either monotherapy alone. There is level 4 evidence showing enhanced efficacy with the combination of vacuum-erection therapy + either PDE5 inhibitor or transurethral PGE1 or intracavernosal injection therapy. There is level 5 evidence (expert opinion) that combination therapy of PDE5 inhibitors + L-arginine or daily dosing of tadalafil + short-acting PDE5 inhibitors pro re nata may rescue PDE5 inhibitor monotherapy failures. There is level 5 evidence (expert opinion) that adding either PDE5 inhibitors or transurethral PGE1 may improve outcome of penile prosthetic surgery regarding soft (cold) glans syndrome. There is level 5 evidence (expert opinion) that the combination of PDE5 inhibitors and dapoxetine is effective and safe in patients suffering from both ED and premature ejaculation.

PMID:
23343170
DOI:
10.1111/jsm.12023
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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