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Echocardiography. 2013 Mar;30(3):345-53. doi: 10.1111/echo.12106. Epub 2013 Jan 22.

Live/Real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in percutaneous closure of atrial septal defects.

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Division of Cardiovascular Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35249, USA.



This study assessed the ability of live/real time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) in measuring (1) atrial septal defect (ASD) maximum dimension, area, and adjacent rim size, (2) ASD occluder left and right atrial disk size, (3) length of contact between the left atrial (LA) disk and the aorta, and in (4) assessing device related complications such as residual shunt, device embolization, and device encroachment upon adjacent cardiac structures.


3DTEE images acquired during percutaneous ASD closure by the Amplatzer Septal Occluder in 15 adult patients were retrospectively analyzed. Offline analysis was done using both the Philips 5500 ultrasound system and Philips QLAB software. 3D color flow Doppler images were used to assess residual ASD shunting.


The Philips 5500 and Philips QLAB measurements correlated well for ASD maximum dimension and area measurements. The Philips QLAB 3DTEE disk size measurements also correlated well with the manufacturer obtained sizes. The aortic rim was deficient in 7 of the 15 patients, and the mean ASD occluder device size was 4 mm greater than the mean ASD maximum dimension. The LA occluder disk was in contact with the aorta throughout the cardiac cycle in 12 of the 15 patients, and the LA occluder disk size correlated significantly with the contact length with the aorta.


Most of the patients demonstrated contact between the LA occluder disk and the aorta throughout the cardiac cycle. 3DTEE may be useful in identifying patients at greater risk for aortic erosion.

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