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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Mar 15;304(6):H840-7. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00695.2012. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Effect of stellate ganglia stimulation on global and regional left ventricular function as assessed by speckle tracking echocardiography.

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Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.


Left ventricular (LV) twist mechanics and regional strain during cardiac sympathetic efferent activation are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of left stellate ganglia (LSG) and right stellate ganglia (RSG) stimulation on cardiac twist/untiwst mechanics and regional strain. In nine pigs, echocardiographic imaging and LV pressure-volume measurements were performed before and during unilateral and bilateral stellate ganglion stimulation. LSG and RSG stimulation significantly augmented LV end-systolic pressure by 24% and 22% (P < 0.01), maximal rate of LV pressure change by 167% and 165% (P < 0.01), and time constant of LV relaxation by 20% and 12% (P < 0.01), respectively. RSG stimulation resulted in a greater chronotropic response than LSG stimulation (RSG: 68% vs. LSG: 12%, P < 0.01). Both LSG and RSG stimulation significantly increased global epicardial and endocardial LV rotation and diastolic untwisting rate and reduced the time to peak rotation (P < 0.05). However, LSG stimulation predominantly increased radial and circumferential strain in the LV inferoseptal, inferior, posterior, and lateral regions, whereas RSG stimulation primarily increased radial and circumferential strain in the anteroseptal, anterior, and lateral LV regions. Stimulation of both stellate ganglia led to a uniform increase in all LV segments. Our data suggest that LSG and RSG stimulation lead to a global increase in LV twist, driven by distinct regional strain heterogeneity that may result from myocardial innervation from the LSG and RSG. These findings provide a better understanding of the global and regional functional consequences of regional myocardial innervation from the LSG and RSG.

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