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World J Pediatr. 2013 Aug;9(3):273-7. doi: 10.1007/s12519-013-0400-x. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Clinical features and mutation analysis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia in 20 Chinese patients.

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Division of Immunology, Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400014, China.



X-linked agammagobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) gene mutation. XLA patients have an extremely small amount of peripheral B cells and profound deficiency in all immunoglobulin isotypes. We analyzed the clinical, immunologic, and molecular characteristics of children with XLA in an attempt to improve the diagnosis and treatment of XLA in China.


Twenty children with XLA-compatible phenotypes from 18 unrelated families were enrolled in this study. The BTK gene was amplified and sequenced, followed by mutation analysis in these children and their female relatives.


Eighteen different mutations of the BTK gene were identified in the 20 patients. Eleven mutations had been reported previously including eight missense mutations (c.994C>T, c.1987C>A, c.1885G>T, c.502T>C, c.1085C>T, c.1816C>T, c.214C>T, c.1912G>A) and three nonsense mutations (c.1267T>A, c.1793C>G, c.1618C>T). Seven novel mutations of the BTK gene were also presented and included five missense mutations (c.134T>A, c.1646T>A, c.1829C>G, c.711G>T, c.1235G>A), one splice-site mutation (c.523+1G>A) and one insertion mutation (c.1024-1025in sTTGCTAAAGCAACTGCTAAAGCAAG). Eight out of 18 mutations of the BTK gene were located in the TK domain, 4 in the PH domain, 4 in the SH2 domain and 2 in the TH domain. Genetic study for carrier status was carried out in 18 families with definite BTK gene mutations. Nine carriers with BTK gene mutations were identified. Six families without carriers were detected, and 3 patients were not tested in this study.


Our results support that molecular genetic testing represents an important tool for early confirmed diagnosis of congenital agammaglobulinemia and may allow accurate carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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