Send to

Choose Destination
Plant J. 2013 Apr;74(2):328-38. doi: 10.1111/tpj.12124. Epub 2013 Mar 4.

Universal fractionation of lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) from lignocellulosic biomass: an example using spruce wood.

Author information

Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, Teknikringen 56-58, SE-10044, Stockholm, Sweden.


It is of both theoretical and practical importance to develop a universally applicable approach for the fractionation and sensitive lignin characterization of lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCCs) from all types of lignocellulosic biomass, both natively and after various types of processing. In the present study, a previously reported fractionation approach that is applicable for eucalyptus (hardwood) and flax (non-wood) was further improved by introducing an additional step of barium hydroxide precipitation to isolate the mannan-enriched LCC (glucomannan-lignin, GML), in order to suit softwood species as well. Spruce wood was used as the softwood sample. As indicated by the recovery yield and composition analysis, all of the lignin was recovered in three LCC fractions: a glucan-enriched fraction (glucan-lignin, GL), a mannan-enriched fraction (GML) and a xylan-enriched fraction (xylan-lignin, XL). All of the LCCs had high molecular masses and were insoluble or barely soluble in a dioxane/water solution. Carbohydrate and lignin signals were observed in (1) H NMR, (13) C CP-MAS NMR and normal- or high-sensitivity 2D HSQC NMR analyses. The carbohydrate and lignin constituents in each LCC fraction are therefore believed to be chemically bonded rather than physically mixed with one another. The three LCC fractions were found to be distinctly different from each other in terms of their lignin structures, as revealed by highly sensitive analyses by thioacidolysis-GC, thioacidolysis-SEC and pyrolysis-GC.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center