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Vet Dermatol. 2013 Feb;24(1):118-25.e27-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3164.2012.01064.x.

The effect of ketoconazole on whole blood and skin ciclosporin concentrations in dogs.

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Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.



Ciclosporin (CSA) is approved for the treatment of canine atopic dermatitis. Ciclosporin is metabolized by liver cytochrome P450 enzymes, a process inhibited by ketoconazole (KTZ).


The aims of this study were to determine skin and blood CSA concentrations when CSA was administered alone at 5.0 (Treatment 1) or 2.5 mg/kg (Treatment 2) and when CSA was administered at 2.5 mg/kg concurrently with KTZ at 5 (Treatment 3) or 2.5 mg/kg (Treatment 4). We hypothesized that skin and blood CSA concentrations in Treatment 1 would not differ from those obtained with T3 or T4.


In a randomized cross-over study, six healthy research dogs received each of the treatments (Treatment 1, 2, 3 and 4) once daily for 7 days.


After the first, fourth and seventh dose for each treatment, a peak and trough skin punch biopsy sample and whole blood sample were collected and analysed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Data were analysed using a repeated measures approach with PROC MIXED in SAS. Pairwise comparisons were performed with least squares means and Tukey-Kramer adjustment for multiple comparisons.


Mean blood CSA concentrations in Treatment 1 were not different from those in Treatment 2 or 4, but were less than in Treatment 3. Mean skin CSA concentrations in Treatment 1 were greater than in Treatment 2, not different from those in Treatment 4, and less than those in Treatment 3.


Administration of CSA and KTZ concurrently at 2.5 mg/kg each may be as effective as CSA alone at 5.0 mg/kg for treatment of canine atopic dermatitis.

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