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Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2013 Apr;9(4):459-72. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2013.759210. Epub 2013 Jan 21.

Model-based approaches to predict drug-drug interactions associated with hepatic uptake transporters: preclinical, clinical and beyond.

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Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA.



Membrane transporters have been recognized to play a key role in determining the absorption, distribution and elimination processes of drugs. The organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1 and OATP1B3 isoforms are selectively expressed in the human liver and are known to cause significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs), as observed with an increasing number of drugs. It is evident that DDIs involving hepatic transporters are capable of altering systemic, as well as tissue-specific, exposure of drug substrates resulting in marked differences in drug safety and/or efficacy. It is therefore essential to quantitatively predict such interactions early in the drug development to mitigate clinical risks.


The role of hepatic uptake transporters in drug disposition and clinical DDIs has been reviewed with an emphasis on the current state of the models applicable for quantitative predictions. The readers will also gain insight into the in vitro experimental tools available to characterize transport kinetics, while appreciating the knowledge gaps in the in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE), which warrant further investigation.


Static and dynamic models can be convincingly applied to quantitatively predict drug interactions, early in drug discovery, to mitigate clinical risks as well as to avoid unnecessary clinical studies. Compared to basic models, which focus on individual processes, mechanistic models provide the ability to assess DDI potential for compounds with systemic disposition determined by both transporters and metabolic enzymes. However, complexities in the experimental tools and an apparent disconnect in the IVIVE of transport kinetics have limited the physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling strategies. Emerging data on the expression of transporter proteins and tissue drug concentrations are expected to help bridge these gaps. In addition, detailed characterization of substrate kinetics can facilitate building comprehensive mechanistic models.

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