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Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;71(3):705-11. doi: 10.1007/s00280-012-2061-1. Epub 2013 Jan 18.

Phase I/II study of amrubicin in combination with S-1 as second-line chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer without EGFR mutation.

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Department of Thoracic Oncology, Kanagawa Cancer Center, Nakao 1-1-2, Asahi-ku, Yokohama 241-0815, Japan.



Both amrubicin (Am) and S-1 are effective against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and preclinical studies have demonstrated that the effect of tegafur/uracil, the original compound of S-1, in combination with Am significantly inhibits tumor growth.


We conducted a phase I/II study of Am and S-1 against pretreated NSCLC without EGFR mutation. We fixed the dose of S-1 at 40 mg/m(2) on days 1-14 and escalated the Am dose in increments of 5 mg/m(2) from a starting dose of 30 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-3 and repeated the cycle every 4 weeks.


Twenty-six patients were registered. In phase I, at an Am dose of 35 mg/m(2)/day, three patients experienced grade 2 leukopenia during S-1 administration, and S-1 was withdrawn. Another patient developed grade 2 serum bilirubin in the first cycle. DLTs were observed in four of six patients at this dose level, and therefore, 30 mg/m(2)/day was set as the recommended dose for Am. Twenty patients received this recommended Am dose. Febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients, and one patient developed a grade 4 increase in serum creatinine. Grade 3 vomiting, infection, hypotension, and urinary retention were observed in one patient each, respectively. Other toxicities were mild, and there were no treatment-related deaths. Two patients showed a CR, three showed a PR, and the overall response rate was 25.0%. The median progression-free and the median survival times were 3.8 and 15.6 months, respectively, and the 1-year survival rate was 60%.


Am and S-1 every 4 weeks is an effective combination for pretreated NSCLC without EGFR mutation.

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