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Chimerism. 2013 Jan-Mar;4(1):23-5. doi: 10.4161/chim.23350. Epub 2013 Jan 1.

Toward minimal conditioning protocols for allogeneic chimerism in tolerance resistant recipients.

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Department of Surgery, Alberta Diabetes Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB Canada.


Mixed chimerism is a promising approach toward generating donor-specific immunological tolerance. However, chimerism induction can be toxic; therefore, there is an effort to develop non-myeloablative, minimal intensity protocols that can generate chimerism without the toxic side effects. Recently, with the goal of creating a minimalistic chimerism induction protocol in the tolerance resistant non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, we identified pre-existing T cells as cells that resist fully allogeneic chimerism. With monoclonals targeting NOD T cells, we showed that long-term chimerism and tolerance toward donor islets could be established. However, this promising new protocol relied on the administration of a single dose of anti-CD40 ligand, which is not clinically applicable. In refining protocols to move even closer to clinical utility, we report here initial success at generating fully allogeneic mixed chimerism in NOD mice by adding cyclophosphamide to the conditioning regimen in place of anti-CD40 ligand antibodies.


chimerism; cyclophosphamide; hematopoietic stem cell; split tolerance; tolerance; transplantation

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