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Diabetes. 2013 May;62(5):1709-17. doi: 10.2337/db12-1042. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

Omega-3 fatty acids reduce adipose tissue macrophages in human subjects with insulin resistance.

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  • 1Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, and Barnstable Brown Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, USA.

Abstract

Fish oils (FOs) have anti-inflammatory effects and lower serum triglycerides. This study examined adipose and muscle inflammatory markers after treatment of humans with FOs and measured the effects of ω-3 fatty acids on adipocytes and macrophages in vitro. Insulin-resistant, nondiabetic subjects were treated with Omega-3-Acid Ethyl Esters (4 g/day) or placebo for 12 weeks. Plasma macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels were reduced by FO, but the levels of other cytokines were unchanged. The adipose (but not muscle) of FO-treated subjects demonstrated a decrease in macrophages, a decrease in MCP-1, and an increase in capillaries, and subjects with the most macrophages demonstrated the greatest response to treatment. Adipose and muscle ω-3 fatty acid content increased after treatment; however, there was no change in insulin sensitivity or adiponectin. In vitro, M1-polarized macrophages expressed high levels of MCP-1. The addition of ω-3 fatty acids reduced MCP-1 expression with no effect on TNF-α. In addition, ω-3 fatty acids suppressed the upregulation of adipocyte MCP-1 that occurred when adipocytes were cocultured with macrophages. Thus, FO reduced adipose macrophages, increased capillaries, and reduced MCP-1 expression in insulin-resistant humans and in macrophages and adipocytes in vitro; however, there was no measureable effect on insulin sensitivity.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00579436 NCT00579436.

PMID:
23328126
PMCID:
PMC3636648
DOI:
10.2337/db12-1042
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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