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J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2013;26(3-4):239-46. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2012-0355.

Influence of developmental and hormonal factors on bone health in adolescent females: a cross-sectional study and review of the literature.

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1st Department of Pediatrics, Athens University Medical School, Agia Sophia Children’s Hospital, Athens, Greece.



To study bone density in healthy Greek girls going through puberty and determine the influence of developmental and hormonal factors.


Sixty healthy female adolescents (average age of 13.88±2.53 years) were included. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the hip by DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry). Pubertal stage was determined by Tanner's criteria. Creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and 25-OH-vitamin D levels were measured in blood samples. The European physical fitness test battery (EUROFIT) was used to assess the parameters of physical fitness that are related to strength.


Adolescent girls had a mean (±SD) BMD value of 0.947±0.144 g/cm2 at the total hip (total hip BMD). Tanner's stage for pubic hair and body mass index (BMI) constituted significant, positive and independent predicting factors for bone density of total hip. Deficiency of 25OH-vitamin D was a negative predicting factor of bone density. Blood levels of calcium and phosphorus, the hours that adolescents devoted to sports, and handgrip strength, were independent predicting factors of bone density at the hip.


Bone density and consequently bone health is determined by factors that can be modified in order to achieve optimal bone growth and reduce the risk of fractures and osteoporosis in later life.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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