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Mol Syndromol. 2012 Aug;3(2):68-75. doi: 10.1159/000341252. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

5q31 Microdeletions: Definition of a Critical Region and Analysis of LRRTM2, a Candidate Gene for Intellectual Disability.

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1
Institute of Human Genetics, Life and Brain Center, University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany.

Abstract

Microdeletions including 5q31 have been reported in only few patients to date. Apart from intellectual disability/developmental delay (ID/DD) of varying degrees, which is common to all reported patients, the clinical spectrum is wide and includes short stature, failure to thrive, congenital heart defects, encephalopathies, and dysmorphic features. We report a patient with a 0.9-Mb de novo deletion in 5q31.2, the smallest microdeletion in 5q31 reported thus far. His clinical presentation includes mild DD, borderline short stature, postnatal microcephaly, and mild dysmorphic signs including microretrognathia. Together with data from 7 reported overlapping microdeletions, analysis of our patient enabled the tentative delineation of a phenotype map for 5q31 deletions. In contrast to the mild phenotype of small microdeletions affecting only 5q31.2, carriers of larger microdeletions which also include subbands 5q31.1 and/or 5q31.3 seem to be more severely affected with congenital malformations, growth anomalies, and severe encephalopathies. A 240-kb smallest region of overlap in 5q31.2 is delineated which contains only 2 genes, CTNNA1 and LRRTM2. We propose LRRTM2 as the most promising candidate gene for ID/DD due to its expression pattern, function as a key regulator of excitatory development, and interaction with Neurexin 1. However, sequence analysis of LRRTM2 in 330 patients with ID/DD revealed no relevant alterations, excluding point mutations in LRRTM2 as a frequent cause of ID/DD in patients without microdeletions.

KEYWORDS:

5q31.2; Candidate gene; Developmental delay; Intellectual disability; LRRTM2; Microdeletion; Molecular karyotyping

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