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World J Gastroenterol. 2012 Dec 28;18(48):7166-74. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i48.7166.

Oridonin induces apoptosis in gastric cancer through Apaf-1, cytochrome c and caspase-3 signaling pathway.

Author information

1
Department of Thyroid and Breast Surgery, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou 310014, Zhejiang Province, China.

Abstract

AIM:

To investigate the effect and mechanism of oridonin on the gastric cancer cell line HGC-27 in vitro.

METHODS:

The inhibitory effect of oridonin on HGC-27 cells was detected using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. After treatment with 10 μg/mL oridonin for 24 h and 48 h, the cells were stained with acridine orange/ethidium bromide. The morphologic changes were observed under an inverted fluorescence microscope. DNA fragmentation (a hallmark of apoptosis) and lactate dehydrogenase activity were examined using DNA ladder assay and lactate dehydrogenase-release assay. After treated with oridonin (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/mL), HGC-27 cells were collected for anexin V-phycoerythrin and 7-amino-actinomycin D double staining and tested by flow cytometric analysis, and oridonin- induced apoptosis in HGC-27 cells was detected. After treatment with oridonin for 24 h, the effects of oridonin on expression of Apaf-1, Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and cytochrome c were also analyzed using reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting.

RESULTS:

Oridonin significantly inhibited the proliferation of HGC-27 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The inhibition rates of HGC-27 treated with four different concentrations of oridonin for 24 h (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 μg/mL) were 1.78% ± 0.36%, 4.96% ± 1.59%, 10.35% ± 2.76% and 41.6% ± 4.29%, respectively, which showed a significant difference (P < 0.05). The inhibition rates of HGC-27 treated with oridonin at the four concentrations for 48 h were 14.77% ± 4.21%, 21.57% ± 3.75%, 30.31% ± 4.91% and 61.19% ± 5.81%, with a significant difference (P < 0.05). The inhibition rates of HGC-27 treated with oridonin for 72 h at the four concentrations were 25.77% ± 4.85%, 31.86% ± 3.86%, 48.30% ± 4.16% and 81.80% ± 6.72%, with a significant difference (P < 0.05). Cells treated with oridonin showed typical apoptotic features with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining. After treatment with oridonin, the cells became round, shrank, and developed small buds around the nuclear membrane while forming apoptotic bodies. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay showed that after treated with 1.25 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL oridonin for 24 h, LDH release of HGC-27 caused by apoptosis increased from 22.94% ± 3.8% to 52.68% ± 2.4% (P < 0.001). However, the change in the release of LDH caused by necrosis was insignificant, suggesting that the major cause of oridonin-induced HGC-27 cell death was apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis also revealed that oridonin induced significant apoptosis compared with the controls (P < 0.05). And the apoptosis rates of HGC-27 induced by the four different concentrations of oridonin were 5.3% ± 1.02%, 12.8% ± 2.53%, 28.5% ± 4.23% and 49.6% ± 3.76%, which were in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). After treatment for 24 h, DNA ladder showed that oridonin induced a significant increase in DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner. RT-PCR revealed that mRNA expression levels were up-regulated compared with the controls in caspase-3 (0.917 ± 0.103 vs 0.357 ± 0.019, P < 0.05), cytochrome c (1.429 ± 0.111 vs 1.002 ± 0.014, P < 0.05), Apaf-1 (0.688 ± 0.101 vs 0.242 ± 0.037, P < 0.05) and Bax (0.856 ± 0.101 vs 0.278 ± 0.027, P < 0.05) (P < 0.05), whereas down-regulated in Bcl-2 (0.085 ± 0.012 vs 0.175 ± 0.030, P < 0.05). Western blotting analysis also confirmed this result.

CONCLUSION:

Apoptosis of HGC-27 induced by oridonin may be associated with differential expression of Apaf-1, caspase-3 and cytochrome c, which are highly dependent upon the mitochondrial pathway.

KEYWORDS:

Apaf-1/caspase-3/cytochrome C; Apoptosis; Gastric cancer; Oridonin; Proliferation

PMID:
23326121
PMCID:
PMC3544018
DOI:
10.3748/wjg.v18.i48.7166
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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