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Occup Environ Med. 2013 Apr;70(4):246-51. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2012-100996. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

Psychosocial factors and well-being among Finnish GPs and specialists: a 10-year follow-up.

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National Institute for Health and Welfare, PO Box 30, Helsinki 271, Finland.



Identifying factors that determine well-being among physicians may help to improve the functioning of hospitals and healthcare centres. We examined associations of psychosocial factors with psychological distress and sleep problems in Finnish general practitioners (GPs) and specialists.


In this prospective cohort study, data from repeated measures over 10 years, related to 886 physicians followed-up from 2000 to 2010 (the Finnish Public Sector Cohort Study). Psychological distress was assessed repeatedly using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and sleeping problems using the Jenkins scale in three or in four surveys. Psychosocial factors and potential confounders were measured in four surveys over the same period.


High job demands were associated with psychological distress in GPs but not in specialists (p for interaction 0.005). This association was slightly stronger in the within-individual analysis than in the ordinary (total effects) regression, suggesting that the association was not confounded by stable differences between individuals. There was suggestive evidence for a stronger association between effort/reward imbalance and psychological distress in GPs compared with specialists (p for interaction 0.06). High demands and effort-reward-imbalance were associated with elevated sleeping problems in both groups, whereas high job control was associated with lower psychological distress but not sleeping problems.


These findings suggest that work-related psychosocial factors are partly responsible for the rise of health problems in physicians, such as psychological distress and sleeping problems. Increasing job demands may be a health risk, especially in GPs.

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