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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013 Feb 15;431(3):530-4. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.01.024. Epub 2013 Jan 12.

Characteristics of nobiletin-mediated alteration of gene expression in cultured cell lines.

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Department of Molecular Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52-1 Yada, Shizuoka 422-8526, Japan.


Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid that is highly contained in the peels of citrus fruits, exerts a wide variety of beneficial effects, including anti-proliferative effects in cancer cells, repressive effects in hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia, and ameliorative effects in dementia at in vitro and in vivo levels. In the present study, to further understand the mechanisms of these actions of nobiletin, the nobiletin-mediated alterations of gene expression in three organ-derived cell lines - 3Y1 rat fibroblasts, HuH-7 human hepatocarcinoma cells, and SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma cells - were first examined with DNA microarrays. In all three cell lines, treatments with nobiletin (100 μM) for 24 h resulted in more than 200% increases in the expression levels of five genes, including the endoplasmic reticulum stress-responsive genes Ddit3, Trib3, and Asns, and in less than 50% decreases in the expression levels of seven genes, including the cell cycle-regulating genes Ccna2, Ccne2, and E2f8 and the oxidative stress-promoting gene Txnip. It was also confirmed that in each nobiletin-treated cell line, the levels of the DDIT3 (DNA-damage-inducible transcript 3, also known as CHOP and GADD153) and ASNS (asparagine synthetase) proteins were increased, while the level of the TXNIP (thioredoxin-interacting protein, also known as VDUP1 and TBP-2) protein was decreased. All these findings suggest that nobiletin exerts a wide variety of biological effects, at least partly, through induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and suppressions of oxidative stress and cell proliferation.

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