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Cell Biol Int. 2013 Jan;37(1):19-28. doi: 10.1002/cbin.10003. Epub 2012 Dec 4.

Mycophenolic acid regulates spleen tyrosine kinase to repress tumour necrosis factor-alpha-induced monocyte chemotatic protein-1 production in cultured human aortic endothelial cells.

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  • 1Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Republic of Korea.


Atherosclerosis develops from cascades of inflammatory processes. Spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) and monocyte chemotatic protein-1 (MCP-1) play important roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Mycophenolic acid (MPA) has an anti-inflammatory effect. We have investigated whether MPA regulates Syk to repress tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced MCP-1 production in cultured human aortic endothelial cells. Expression of MCP-1 mRNA and its protein were measured by real time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured using 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Activation of AP-1 and NF-κB were assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk was examined by Western blot analysis. TNF-α increased MCP-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. TNF-α-induced MCP-1 mRNA expression was inhibited by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), Syk inhibitor, Syk-siRNA and MPA. TNF-α-induced MCP-1 protein production was also inhibited by Syk inhibitor and MPA. TNF-α increased DNA binding activity of AP-1 and NF-κB, whereas both AP-1 and NF-κB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides downregulated TNF-α-induced MCP-1 mRNA expression. TNF-α increased ROS generation, which was inhibited by NAC and MPA, but not by Syk inhibitor. TNF-α increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Syk, which was attenuated by NAC and MPA. MPA and Syk inhibitor attenuated TNF-α-induced DNA binding activity of NF-κB and AP-1. TNF-α induced MCP-1 expression via activation of AP-1 and NF-κB. AP-1 and NF-κB were mediated through ROS, followed by Syk. MPA exerts anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting MCP-1 expression via suppression of ROS and Syk.

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