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Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Oct;37(10):1378-85. doi: 10.1038/ijo.2012.225. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

Changes in water and beverage intake and long-term weight changes: results from three prospective cohort studies.

Author information

1
1] Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA [2] Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health and Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore and National University Health System, Singapore, Republic of Singapore.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To examine the long-term relationship between changes in water and beverage intake and weight change.

SUBJECTS:

Prospective cohort studies of 50013 women aged 40-64 years in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1986-2006), 52987 women aged 27-44 years in the NHS II (1991-2007) and 21988 men aged 40-64 years in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2006) without obesity and chronic diseases at baseline.

MEASURES:

We assessed the association of weight change within each 4-year interval, with changes in beverage intakes and other lifestyle behaviors during the same period. Multivariate linear regression with robust variance and accounting for within-person repeated measures were used to evaluate the association. Results across the three cohorts were pooled by an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis.

RESULTS:

Participants gained an average of 1.45 kg (5th to 95th percentile: -1.87 to 5.46) within each 4-year period. After controlling for age, baseline body mass index and changes in other lifestyle behaviors (diet, smoking habits, exercise, alcohol, sleep duration, TV watching), each 1 cup per day increment of water intake was inversely associated with weight gain within each 4-year period (-0.13 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.17 to -0.08). The associations for other beverages were: sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) (0.36 kg; 95% CI: 0.24-0.48), fruit juice (0.22 kg; 95% CI: 0.15-0.28), coffee (-0.14 kg; 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.09), tea (-0.03 kg; 95% CI: -0.05 to -0.01), diet beverages (-0.10 kg; 95% CI: -0.14 to -0.06), low-fat milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.09) and whole milk (0.02 kg; 95% CI: -0.06 to 0.10). We estimated that replacement of 1 serving per day of SSBs by 1 cup per day of water was associated with 0.49 kg (95% CI: 0.32-0.65) less weight gain over each 4-year period, and the replacement estimate of fruit juices by water was 0.35 kg (95% CI: 0.23-0.46). Substitution of SSBs or fruit juices by other beverages (coffee, tea, diet beverages, low-fat and whole milk) were all significantly and inversely associated with weight gain.

CONCLUSION:

Our results suggest that increasing water intake in place of SSBs or fruit juices is associated with lower long-term weight gain.

PMID:
23318721
PMCID:
PMC3628978
DOI:
10.1038/ijo.2012.225
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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