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Nanoscale. 2013 Feb 21;5(4):1353-68. doi: 10.1039/c2nr32453a.

Semiconducting graphene: converting graphene from semimetal to semiconductor.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211, USA.


Interest in graphene has grown extensively in the last decade or so, because of its extraordinary physical properties, chemical tunability, and potential for various applications. However, graphene is intrinsically a semimetal with a zero bandgap, which considerably impedes its use in many applications where a suitable bandgap is required. The transformation of graphene into a semiconductor has attracted significant attention, because the presence of a sizable bandgap in graphene can vastly promote its already-fascinating potential in an even wider range of applications. Here we review major advances in the pursuit of semiconducting graphene materials. We first briefly discuss the electronic properties of graphene and some theoretical background for manipulating the band structure of graphene. We then summarize many experimental approaches proposed in recent years for producing semiconducting graphene. Despite the relatively short history of research in semiconducting graphene, the progress has been remarkable and many significant developments are highly anticipated.

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