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Perspect Med Educ. 2012 Mar;1(1):6-14. doi: 10.1007/s40037-012-0002-7. Epub 2012 Feb 7.

Medical education: past, present and future.

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Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, MDCL 3519, McMaster University, 1200 Main St. W., Hamilton, ON L8N3Z5 Canada.


This article reviews changes in undergraduate and postgraduate medical education since the Flexner report of 1910. I argue that many of the changes in the twentieth century could be viewed as 'post-Flexnerian', and related to the integration of biomedical science in the preclinical medical curriculum. I then go on to argue that recent changes in the health care systems worldwide will force a critical re-examination of our approach to clinical education-a 'post-Oslerian' era. I suggest that one approach would be to decouple clinical education from clinical care, to some degree, and supplement with curricula designed around careful sequencing of simulated cases.


Basic science teaching; Clinical teaching; Medical education

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