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Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013 Jul;20(7):4886-94. doi: 10.1007/s11356-013-1467-6. Epub 2013 Jan 12.

Performance of hybrid vertical up- and downflow subsurface flow constructed wetlands in treating synthetic high-strength wastewater.

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Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, People's Republic of China.


The performance and temporal variation of hybrid vertical-subsurface flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in response to two-stage combinations of vertical upflow (VUF) and vertical downflow (VDF) were analyzed in this research. The results of high carbon (C) treatment and high nitrogen (N) treatment were similar. The Lythrum salicaria treatment showed higher removal efficiency than CWs planted with Acorus calamus. Under high C- and N-loading treatments, the optimum two-stage combination was VDF-VUF VFCWs planted with A. calamus. Furthermore, the highest nutrient removal efficiencies were achieved in late summer (July and August) and early autumn (September). The chemical oxygen demand and total nitrogen removal efficiencies were significantly affected (Pā€‰<ā€‰0.05) by season, system, and wetland plant.

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