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Nat Immunol. 2013 Mar;14(3):246-53. doi: 10.1038/ni.2514. Epub 2013 Jan 13.

IL-1R signaling in dendritic cells replaces pattern-recognition receptors in promoting CD8⁺ T cell responses to influenza A virus.

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Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.


Immune responses to vaccines require direct recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) on dendritic cells (DCs). Unlike vaccination, infection by a live pathogen often impairs DC function and inflicts additional damage on the host. Here we found that after infection with live influenza A virus, signaling through the interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R) was required for productive priming of CD8(+) T cells, but signaling through the PRRs TLR7 and RIG-I was not. DCs activated by IL-1 in trans were both required and sufficient for the generation of virus-specific CD8(+) T cell immunity. Our data demonstrate a critical role for a bystander cytokine in the priming of CD8(+) T cells during infection with a live virus.

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