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Neurobiol Dis. 2013 Jun;54:216-24. doi: 10.1016/j.nbd.2012.12.014. Epub 2013 Jan 8.

Isoflurane postconditioning reduces ischemia-induced nuclear factor-κB activation and interleukin 1β production to provide neuroprotection in rats and mice.

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1
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA.

Abstract

Application of isoflurane, a volatile anesthetic, after brain ischemia can reduce ischemic brain injury in rodents (isoflurane postconditioning). This study is designed to determine whether isoflurane postconditioning improves long-term neurological outcome after focal brain ischemia and whether this protection is mediated by attenuating neuroinflammation. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a 90-min middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAO). Isoflurane postconditioning was performed by exposing rats to 2% isoflurane for 60min immediately after the MCAO. Isoflurane postconditioning reduced brain infarct volumes, apoptotic cells in the ischemic penumbral brain tissues and neurological deficits of rats at 4weeks after the MCAO. Isoflurane postconditioning reduced brain ischemia/reperfusion-induced nuclear transcription factor (NF)-κB (NF-κB) activation as well as interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 production in the ischemic penumbral brain tissues at 24h after the MCAO. IL-1β deficient mice had smaller brain infarct volumes and better neurological functions than wild-type mice at 24h after a 90-min focal brain ischemia. Isoflurane posttreatment failed to induce neuroprotection in the IL-1β deficient mice. Our results suggest that isoflurane postconditioning improved long-term neurological outcome after transient focal brain ischemia. This protection may be mediated by inhibiting NF-κB activation and the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β.

PMID:
23313315
PMCID:
PMC3628970
DOI:
10.1016/j.nbd.2012.12.014
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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