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Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2013 Feb 21;15(7):2572-9. doi: 10.1039/c2cp44397j. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

Lithium salts as "redox active" p-type dopants for organic semiconductors and their impact in solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

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Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PU, UK.


Lithium salts have been shown to dramatically increase the conductivity in a broad range of polymeric and small molecule organic semiconductors (OSs). Here we demonstrate and identify the mechanism by which Li(+) p-dopes OSs in the presence of oxygen. After we established the lithium doping mechanism, we re-evaluate the role of lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)-imide (Li-TFSI) in 2,2',7,7'-tetrakis(N,N-di-p-methoxyphenyl-amine)9,9'-Spirobifluorene (Spiro-OMeTAD) based solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells (ss-DSSCs). The doping mechanism consumes Li(+) during the device operation, which poses a problem, since the lithium salt is required at the dye-sensitized heterojunction to enhance charge generation. This compromise highlights that new additives are required to maximize the performance and the long-term stability of ss-DSSCs.

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