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Korean J Pediatr. 2012 Dec;55(12):449-54. doi: 10.3345/kjp.2012.55.12.449. Epub 2012 Dec 20.

Impact of attachment, temperament and parenting on human development.

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1
Department of Pediatrics, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Abstract

The purpose of this review is to present the basic concepts of attachment theory and temperament traits and to discuss the integration of these concepts into parenting practices. Attachment is a basic human need for a close and intimate relationship between infants and their caregivers. Responsive and contingent parenting produces securely attached children who show more curiosity, self-reliance, and independence. Securely attached children also tend to become more resilient and competent adults. In contrast, those who do not experience a secure attachment with their caregivers may have difficulty getting along with others and be unable to develop a sense of confidence or trust in others. Children who are slow to adjust or are shy or irritable are likely to experience conflict with their parents and are likely to receive less parental acceptance or encouragement, which can make the children feel inadequate or unworthy. However, the influence of children's temperament or other attributes may be mitigated if parents adjust their caregiving behaviors to better fit the needs of the particular child. Reflecting on these arguments and our childhood relationships with our own parents can help us develop the skills needed to provide effective guidance and nurturance.

KEYWORDS:

Attachment; Child; Development; Parenting; Temperament

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