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J Vis Exp. 2012 Dec 28;(70). pii: 4294. doi: 10.3791/4294.

Quantitative analysis of chromatin proteomes in disease.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Abstract

In the nucleus reside the proteomes whose functions are most intimately linked with gene regulation. Adult mammalian cardiomyocyte nuclei are unique due to the high percentage of binucleated cells,(1) the predominantly heterochromatic state of the DNA, and the non-dividing nature of the cardiomyocyte which renders adult nuclei in a permanent state of interphase.(2) Transcriptional regulation during development and disease have been well studied in this organ,(3-5) but what remains relatively unexplored is the role played by the nuclear proteins responsible for DNA packaging and expression, and how these proteins control changes in transcriptional programs that occur during disease.(6) In the developed world, heart disease is the number one cause of mortality for both men and women.(7) Insight on how nuclear proteins cooperate to regulate the progression of this disease is critical for advancing the current treatment options. Mass spectrometry is the ideal tool for addressing these questions as it allows for an unbiased annotation of the nuclear proteome and relative quantification for how the abundance of these proteins changes with disease. While there have been several proteomic studies for mammalian nuclear protein complexes,(8-13) until recently(14) there has been only one study examining the cardiac nuclear proteome, and it considered the entire nucleus, rather than exploring the proteome at the level of nuclear sub compartments.(15) In large part, this shortage of work is due to the difficulty of isolating cardiac nuclei. Cardiac nuclei occur within a rigid and dense actin-myosin apparatus to which they are connected via multiple extensions from the endoplasmic reticulum, to the extent that myocyte contraction alters their overall shape.(16) Additionally, cardiomyocytes are 40% mitochondria by volume(17) which necessitates enrichment of the nucleus apart from the other organelles. Here we describe a protocol for cardiac nuclear enrichment and further fractionation into biologically-relevant compartments. Furthermore, we detail methods for label-free quantitative mass spectrometric dissection of these fractions-techniques amenable to in vivo experimentation in various animal models and organ systems where metabolic labeling is not feasible.

PMID:
23299252
PMCID:
PMC3577865
DOI:
10.3791/4294
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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