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Vet Surg. 2013 May;42(4):440-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01040.x. Epub 2013 Jan 8.

Use of a percutaneously controlled urethral hydraulic occluder for treatment of refractory urinary incontinence in 18 female dogs.

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Department of Surgery, Bobst Hospital of The Animal Medical Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.



To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a percutaneously controlled urethral hydraulic occluder (HO) device for the treatment of refractory urinary incontinence (RUI) in female dogs with various urogenital anomalies.


Case series.


Female dogs with RUI (n = 18).


Retrospective evaluation of dogs after a silicone ring (HO) was surgically placed around the proximal urethra. The ring was connected to a subcutaneous injection port with actuating tubing. Residual incontinence was treated with percutaneous infusion of sterile saline into the device to provide extraluminal urethral compression. Dogs were assessed for continence (owner-assessed 10-point continence scale) and complications at standard time points.


All 18 dogs had significantly improved continence scores (P < .001) after HO placement (median and mean score pre-HO = 2.8 and 3.3; post-HO = 10 and 8.9, respectively) with a median follow-up time of 32 months. "Functional" continence (score ≥ 9) was achieved in 67% of dogs after HO placement, though only 13/18 clients were compliant with inflations. Of dogs belonging to compliant owners, 12 (92%) had a functional continence score. Six dogs (33%) did not require inflation to achieve continence. Urethral obstruction occurred as a complication in 3 dogs.


Use of an HO device was an effective long-term treatment for RUI when traditional options failed. The technique was associated with some complications, and these risks should be considered before use.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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