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J Clin Oncol. 2013 Feb 10;31(5):616-22. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2012.44.6112. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

Phase III randomized clinical trial comparing tremelimumab with standard-of-care chemotherapy in patients with advanced melanoma.

Author information

1
Division of Hematology-Oncology, 11-934 Factor Building, UCLA Medical Center, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1782, USA. aribas@mednet.ucla.edu

Abstract

PURPOSE:

In phase I/II trials, the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-blocking monoclonal antibody tremelimumab induced durable responses in a subset of patients with advanced melanoma. This phase III study evaluated overall survival (OS) and other safety and efficacy end points in patients with advanced melanoma treated with tremelimumab or standard-of-care chemotherapy.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Patients with treatment-naive, unresectable stage IIIc or IV melanoma were randomly assigned at a ratio of one to one to tremelimumab (15 mg/kg once every 90 days) or physician's choice of standard-of-care chemotherapy (temozolomide or dacarbazine).

RESULTS:

In all, 655 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned. The test statistic crossed the prespecified futility boundary at second interim analysis after 340 deaths, but survival follow-up continued. At final analysis with 534 events, median OS by intent to treat was 12.6 months (95% CI, 10.8 to 14.3) for tremelimumab and 10.7 months (95% CI, 9.36 to 11.96) for chemotherapy (hazard ratio, 0.88; P = .127). Objective response rates were similar in the two arms: 10.7% in the tremelimumab arm and 9.8% in the chemotherapy arm. However, response duration (measured from date of random assignment) was significantly longer after tremelimumab (35.8 v 13.7 months; P = .0011). Diarrhea, pruritus, and rash were the most common treatment-related adverse events in the tremelimumab arm; 7.4% had endocrine toxicities. Seven deaths in the tremelimumab arm and one in the chemotherapy arm were considered treatment related by either investigators or sponsor.

CONCLUSION:

This study failed to demonstrate a statistically significant survival advantage of treatment with tremelimumab over standard-of-care chemotherapy in first-line treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00257205.

Comment in

PMID:
23295794
PMCID:
PMC4878048
DOI:
10.1200/JCO.2012.44.6112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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