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J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2013 Dec;28(6):1129-42. doi: 10.3109/14756366.2012.727813. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

An update on carbonic anhydrase-related proteins VIII, X and XI.

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University of Tampere, Institute of Biomedical Technology , Tampere , Finland.


The catalytically inactive isoforms of carbonic anhydrase (CAs) are known as CA-related proteins (CARPs) VIII, X, and XI. They have highly conserved amino acid sequences. These proteins are predominantly expressed in human and mouse brain, however, their precise roles are poorly known. CARP VIII is functionally associated with motor coordination in human and mouse. CARP X is more highly expressed in the pineal gland during night compared to the day time, suggesting a function for wake/sleep patterns. Phylogeny shows that CARP XI has emerged from CARP X. It is only found in tetrapods and is highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and is also associated with several cancers. Detailed analysis of CARPs is in progress in our laboratory to understand their role in normal physiology. We present a review of literature on CARPs and present some novel data on CARPs obtained in our laboratory.

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