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World J Gastrointest Endosc. 2012 Dec 16;4(12):545-55. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v4.i12.545.

Image-enhanced endoscopy for diagnosis of colorectal tumors in view of endoscopic treatment.

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Naohisa Yoshida, Nobuaki Yagi, Yuji Naito, Department of Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto 602-8566, Japan.


Recently, image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) has been used to diagnose gastrointestinal tumors. This method is a change from conventional white-light (WL) endoscopy without dyeing solution, requiring only the push of a button. In IEE, there are many advantages in diagnosis of neoplastic tumors, evaluation of invasion depth for cancerous lesions, and detection of neoplastic lesions. In narrow band imaging (NBI) systems (Olympus Medical Co., Tokyo, Japan), optical filters that allow narrow-band light to pass at wavelengths of 415 and 540 nm are used. Mucosal surface blood vessels are seen most clearly at 415 nm, which is the wavelength that corresponds to the hemoglobin absorption band, while vessels in the deep layer of the mucosa can be detected at 540 nm. Thus, NBI also can detect pit-like structures named surface pattern. The flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) system (Fujifilm Medical Co., Tokyo, Japan) is also an IEE but different to NBI. FICE depends on the use of spectral-estimation technology to reconstruct images at different wavelengths based on WL images. FICE can enhance vascular and surface patterns. The autofluorescence imaging (AFI) video endoscope system (Olympus Medical Co., Tokyo, Japan) is a new illumination method that uses the difference in intensity of autofluorescence between the normal area and neoplastic lesions. AFI light comprises a blue light for emitting and a green light for hemoglobin absorption. The aim of this review is to highlight the efficacy of IEE for diagnosis of colorectal tumors for endoscopic treatment.


Autofluorescence imaging; Colorectal polyps; Flexible spectral imaging color enhancement; Image-enhanced endoscopy; Narrow band imaging

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