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Toxicol Int. 2012 Sep;19(3):310-8. doi: 10.4103/0971-6580.103681.

Tobacco exposure may enhance inflammation in prostate carcinoma patients: an explorative study in north Indian population.

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Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Chhatrapati Sahuji Maharaj Medical University (Erstwhile KGMU), Lucknow, India.


Prostate cancer is responsible for major deaths globally after lung cancer. However, etiology of prostate cancer is still unknown. Individual risk and incidence of prostate cancer may result from the interaction of genetic susceptibility with exposure to environmental factors such as infectious agents, tobacco, occupational exposure, dietary carcinogens, and/or hormonal imbalances leading to injury of the prostate and to the development of chronic inflammation. About 30% of all human cancers are caused by tobacco smoking and inhaled pollutants. Inflammation is now regarded as an important hallmark of cancer. The present study has been aimed to explore the pro-inflammatory levels in prostate carcinoma patients by examining the serum levels of novel cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) expression in tobacco exposed population. A total of 578 (n = 284 biopsy proven prostate cancer patients, n = 294 controls with and without tobacco exposed population) were recruited. Serum IL-18 (Interleukin-18) level was done by ELISA. The IL-18 levels between cancer patients and controls within same mode tobacco exposure as tobacco smoking (overall) showed significant difference (P < 0.0001) and further we compared within stratified group, it significantly differ (P < 0.0001) in bidi and cigarette smoking than control non users. Furthermore, IL-18 levels in tobacco chewers (overall) with gutkha and khaini chewers showed significant difference (P < 0.01) than controls non users. Moreover, the IL-18 levels between cancer patients and controls with in of combined mode chewers smokers and alcohol (CSA), smokers with alcohol showed significant difference (P < 0.01) than controls. The IL-18 levels also differed significantly (P < 0.05) with smokers and chewers in higher stages of III and IV, and showed non significant with in lower stages. Tobacco exposure enhance the inflammation in prostate carcinoma patients in stratified group as it have been represented as a risk factors in various cancers, but this study provide further its role that seems to influence inflammation especially in prostate carcinoma.


Interleukin-18; NF-KB; prostate cancer; tobacco chewers; tobacco smokers

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