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J Med Phys. 2012 Oct;37(4):200-6. doi: 10.4103/0971-6203.103605.

Modification of the gamma function for the recognition of over- and under-dose regions in three dimensions.

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Department of Medical Physics, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia ; School of Chemistry and Physics, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia ; Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.


In order to evaluate two-dimensional radiation dose distributions, an algorithm called the Gamma function has recently been modified. The current study concentrates on modification of the gamma function as a three-dimensional dose distribution evaluation tool, and includes the recognition of over-dose/under-dose areas. Using a sign term, the conventional gamma function separates the disagreed areas into two parts: over-dose and under-dose areas. The new gamma function was modified using an extension of the dose difference criterion, ΔD, from two dimensions into three dimensions. In order to provide two-dimensional dose maps for analysis, several images were acquired for a range of regular and irregular radiation fields using a Scanning Liquid Ionization Chamber Electronic Portal Imaging Device. The raw images were then converted into two-dimensional transmitted dose maps using an empirical method. They were utilized as reference dose maps. Translational and rotational manipulations were performed on the reference dose distribution maps to provide evaluated dose maps. The reference and evaluated dose maps were then compared using conventional and modified gamma tools. The results indicated that the modified algorithm is able to enhance the over- and under-dose regions. In addition, a slight increase of the agreement percentage for reference and evaluated dose maps were observed by the extension of ΔD to three dimensions. It is concluded that the modified method is more realistic and applicable for the evaluation of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional dose distributions.


Dose distribution; gamma function; two-dimensional dose distribution; two-dimensional dosimetry

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