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Indian J Anaesth. 2012 Sep;56(5):454-62. doi: 10.4103/0019-5049.103960.

Basics of fluid and blood transfusion therapy in paediatric surgical patients.

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1
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India.

Abstract

Perioperative fluid, electrolyte and blood transfusion therapy for infants and children can be confusing due the numerous opinions, formulas and clinical applications, which can result in a picture that is not practical and is often misleading. Perioperatively, crystalloids, colloids and blood components are required to meet the ongoing losses and for maintaining cardiovascular stability to sustain adequate tissue perfusion. Recently controversies have been raised regarding historically used formulas and practices of glucose containing hypotonic maintenance crystalloid solutions for perioperative fluid therapy in children. Paediatric intraoperative transfusion therapy, particularly the approach to massive blood transfusion (blood loss ≥ one blood volume) can be quite complex because of the unique relationship between the patient's blood volume and the volume of the individual blood product transfused. A meticulous fluid, electrolyte and blood transfusion management is required in paediatric patients perioperatively because of an extremely limited margin for error. This article reviews the basic concepts in perioperative fluid and blood transfusion therapy for paediatric patients, along with recent recommendations. For this review, Pubmed, Ovid MEDLINE, HINARI and Google scholar were searched without date restrictions. Search terms included the following in various combinations: Perioperative, fluid therapy, paediatrics, blood transfusion, electrolyte disturbances and guidelines. Only articles with English translation were used.

KEYWORDS:

Fasting; fluid therapy; hyperglycaemia; hypoglycaemia; hyponatraemia; massive blood transfusion; perioperative; transfusion therapy

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