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Ann Biomed Eng. 2013 May;41(5):1029-48. doi: 10.1007/s10439-012-0736-8. Epub 2013 Jan 5.

Closed-loop dynamic modeling of cerebral hemodynamics.

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University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.


The dynamics of cerebral hemodynamics have been studied extensively because of their fundamental physiological and clinical importance. In particular, the dynamic processes of cerebral flow autoregulation (CFA) and CO2 vasomotor reactivity have attracted broad attention because of their involvement in a host of pathologies and clinical conditions (e.g., hypertension, syncope, stroke, traumatic brain injury, vascular dementia, Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment etc.). This raises the prospect of useful diagnostic methods being developed on the basis of quantitative models of cerebral hemodynamics, if cerebral vascular dysfunction can be quantified reliably from data collected within practical clinical constraints. This paper presents a modeling method that utilizes beat-to-beat measurements of mean arterial blood pressure, cerebral blood flow velocity and end-tidal CO2 (collected non-invasively under resting conditions) to quantify the dynamics of CFA and cerebral vasomotor reactivity (CVMR). The unique and novel aspect of this dynamic model is that it is nonlinear and operates in a closed-loop configuration.

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