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Clin Exp Nephrol. 2013 Oct;17(5):725-729. doi: 10.1007/s10157-012-0753-9. Epub 2013 Jan 5.

Acute kidney injury in scrub typhus.

Author information

1
Department of Nephrology, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Manipal, Manipal University, Madhavnagar, Manipal, Udupi District, 576104, Karnataka, India. aravindraprabhu@gmail.com.
2
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Manipal, Manipal University, Udupi District, Karnataka, India.
3
Department of Nephrology, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Manipal, Manipal University, Madhavnagar, Manipal, Udupi District, 576104, Karnataka, India.
4
Department of Pathology, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Manipal, Manipal University, Udupi District, Karnataka, India.
5
Department of Microbiology, Kasturba Medical College and Hospital, Manipal University, Udupi District, Karnataka, India.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We studied the urinary abnormalities and acute kidney injury (AKI) as per RIFLE criteria in scrub typhus.

METHODS:

A prospective case record-based study of scrub typhus was carried out from January 2009 to December 2010 in a tertiary hospital in South India. Patients were followed up until renal recovery or for at least 3 months after discharge. Univariate, chi-squared tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the predictors of AKI.

RESULTS:

Scrub typhus was diagnosed in 259 patients. Urinary abnormalities were seen in 147 patients (56.7%) with 60 patients (23.2%) having AKI. All AKI patients had urinary abnormalities and 17 (28.3%) were oliguric. Applying RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage kidney disease) criteria, R, I, F were present in 23 (38.33%), 13 (21.67%), and 24 patients (40%), respectively. Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) was raised in 33 patients (55%) and hemodialysis was required in 6 patients (10%). The case fatality rate in this study was 2 out of 259 (0.77%), both having AKI and others recovering clinically. Significant predictors of AKI were tachycardia [odds ratio (OR) 2.28], breathlessness (OR 2.281), intensive care requirement (OR 2.43), mechanical ventilation (OR 3.33), thrombocytopenia (OR 2.90) and CPK>80 U/L (OR 1.76) by univariate analysis and intensive care requirement (adjusted OR 2.89) and thrombocytopenia (AOR 2.28) by multivariable logistic regression.

CONCLUSION:

Scrub typhus should be part of the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness with AKI. AKI in scrub typhus is usually mild, non-oliguric, and renal recovery occurs in most patients. Rhabdomyolysis may be contributory to AKI. Thrombocytopenia and intensive care requirement are significant predictors of AKI in scrub typhus.

PMID:
23292176
DOI:
10.1007/s10157-012-0753-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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