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Nanotechnology. 2013 Feb 1;24(4):045303. doi: 10.1088/0957-4484/24/4/045303. Epub 2013 Jan 4.

Epitaxial top-gated atomic-scale silicon wire in a three-dimensional architecture.

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Centre of Excellence for Quantum Computation and Communication Technology and School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.


Three-dimensional (3D) control of dopant profiles in silicon is a critical requirement for fabricating atomically precise transistors. We demonstrate conductance modulation through an atomic scale 3 nm wide δ-doped silicon-phosphorus wire using a vertically separated epitaxial doped Si:P top-gate. We show that intrinsic crystalline silicon grown at low temperatures (∼250 °C) serves as an effective gate dielectric permitting us to achieve large gate ranges (∼2.6 V) with leakage currents below 1 pA. Combining scanning tunneling lithography for precise lateral confinement, with monolayer doping and low temperature epitaxial overgrowth for precise vertical confinement, we can realize multiple layers of nano-patterned dopants in a single crystal material. These results demonstrate the viability of highly doped, vertically separated epitaxial gates in an all-crystalline architecture with long-term implications for monolithic 3D silicon circuits and for the realization of atomically precise donor architectures for quantum computing.

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